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来源:http://www.ablakeforum.com 作者:澳门娱乐场网址 时间:2019-04-12 04:45

  由细菌引起的:Have a bacterial cause

Coltrane himself probably believed that the only essential characteristic of jazz was improvisation, the one constant in his journey from bebop to open-ended improvisations on modal, Indian, and African melodies. On the other hand, this dogged student and prodigious technician — who insisted on spending hours each day practicing scales from theory books — was never able to jettison completely the influence of bebop, with its fast and elaborate chains of notes and ornaments on melody。

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

Part B


[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers。



  与众不同,出类拔萃的人:Rare bird

Do not write the address。

  使他们承受独特的进化力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures

9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating


made to a thesis referred to earlier in the text.[C] A thesis referred to earlier in the text is mentioned, and three examples are presented and

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately linked.

When Coltrane began recording for the Impulse! Label, he was still searching. His music became raucous, physical. His influence on rockers was enormous, including Jimi Hendrix, the rock guitarist, who, following Coltrane, raised the extended guitar solo using repeated motifs to a kind of rock art form。

  被看做基因隔离的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

  1. In terms of its tone and form, the text can best be characterized as [A] dogmatic explanation. [B] indignant denial. [C] enthusiastic praise. [D] speculative study。

  密切相关 be intimately linked

Three recordings illustrate Coltrane’s energizing explorations. Recording Kind of Blue with Miles Davis, Coltrane found himself outside bop, exploring modal melodies. Here he played surging, lengthy solos built largely around repeated motifs — an organizing principle unlike that of free jazz saxophone player Ornette Coleman, who modulated or altered melodies in his solos. On Giant Steps, Coltrane debuted as leader, introducing his own compositions. Here the sheets of sound, downbeat accents, repetitions, and great speed are part of each solo, and the variety of the shapes of his phrases is unique. Coltrane’s searching explorations produced solid achievement. My Favorite Things was another kind of watershed. Here Coltrane played the soprano saxophone, an instrument seldom used by jazz musicians. Musically, the results were astounding. With the soprano’s piping sound, ideas that had sounded dark and brooding acquired a feeling of giddy fantasy。


12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of affairs.

Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。

  一想到……就害怕的身体颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。



  高度重视教育的传统a strong tradition of valuing education

  1. The text provides support for which of the following statements?


Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early history of the United States by applying new social research findings on the experiences of European migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration becomes the organizing principle for rewriting the history of pre-industrial North America. His approach rests on four separate propositions。


[A] High culture in New England never equaled the high culture of England。

  不依附于任何机构:Work indipendently of any institution

The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。

  矛盾的状态 paradoxical state of affairs

This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of 100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this state of affairs。


[B] identify a problem。


2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare

  帮助普及该观点:Help popularize the idea


  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects


[D] It is controversial though persuasive。


[C] bring together disparate facts。

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to do.

[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not。


[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis。

  引起了很大的争议:Arouse much controversy

[C] Weighing your financial goals and expectations first

  以前被认为是不相关的have previously been thought unrelated

meaning of the difference between left-eyed and right-eyed flatfish?[A] “Most striking” (line 3, paragraph 1)[B] “variation is adaptive” (line 2, paragraph 2)[C] “mechanically disadvantageous” (line 7, paragraph 3)[D] “evolutionary red herring” (line 9, paragraph 4)

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

[A] degree to which Coltrane’s music encompassed all of jazz. [B] repetition of motifs that Coltrane used in his solos. [C] number of his own compositions that Coltrane recorded. [D] indifference Coltrane maintained to musical technique。

  结构提示:that some diseases 是前面 the idea 的同位语从句,not previously thought to have a bacterial cause做后置定语修饰前面的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually infections.

It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant phase in European history. History and news become confused, and one’s impressions tend to be a mixture of skepticism and optimism. Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed -- and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe. The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything other than its peoples, their cultures and national identities. With this in mind we can begin to analyze the European television scene. In Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly successful: groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another. One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group, while abroad Maxwell and Murdoch come to mind。

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name


Section Ⅳ Writing

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming" instead。

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)

  1. According to the text, John Coltrane did all of the following during his career EXCEPT [A] improvise on melodies from a number of different cultures. [B] perform as leader as well as soloist. [C] spend time improving his technical skills. [D] eliminate the influence of bebop on his own music。

  2. According to the text a major difference between Coltrane and other jazz musicians was the

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down


  1. The author of the text would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about Bailyn's work?

6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk

Part B


[B] Paying attention to details

[A] give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political interdependence of the colonies and England。

[D] Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated。

10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total

20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous

One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

Funds that invest solely in a single market sectors, called specialty funds, often have impressive returns and may be great additions to a diversified portfolio. However, the success of such funds depends largely on the fortunes of a particular market sector. Hence, specialty funds probably aren’t the best way to start. For your first fund, look for a diversified stock fund that has exposure to different types of stocks。

[D] stipulate clear goals。

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do。

One way to begin your search for a good fund is to use the Morningstar star rating. The rating is a useful tool for narrowing the field to funds that have done a good job of balancing return and risk in the past. To assign ratings, Morningstar uses a formula that compares a fund’s risk-adjusted historical performance with that of other funds within four rating groups – domestic stock funds, international stock funds, taxable bond funds, and municipal bond funds。

[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not。

correspondence is explained。

the maximum profit.[C] A flower stall in which the various species of flowers are arranged according to their price.[D] A housing development in which the length of the front struts supporting the porch of each

[D] By the 1730's,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more demand by American employers than were unskilled laborers。

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis。

1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased

Part A

selectively neutral? [D] How do the eyes in flatfish migrate?39. Which of the following is most clearly similar to a cline as it is described in the second

[B] The cultural achievements of colonial New England have generally been unrecognized by historians。

16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

Biologists call this kind of gradual variation over a certain geographic range a “cline” and interpret clines as strong indications that the variation is adaptive, a response to environmental differences. For the starry flounder this interpretation implies that a geometric difference (between fish that are mirror images of one another) is adaptive, that left-eyedness in the Japanese starry flounder has been selected for, which provokes a perplexing question: what is the selective advantage in having both eyes on one side rather than on the other?

  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?

[D] Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently。

[C] The colonists imitated the high culture of England, and did not develop a culture that was uniquely their own。

[A] An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given。

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

The first of these asserts that residents of early modern England moved regularly about their countryside; migrating to the New World was simply a natural spillover. Although at first the colonies held little positive attraction for the English — they would rather have stayed home — by the eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America because they regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn holds that, contrary to the notion that used to flourish in America history textbooks, there was never a typical New World community. For example, the economic and demographic character of early New England towns varied considerably。

There’s no free lunch in fund investing: in addition to the sales fees that some fund companies charge, fund investors must also pay management fees and trading costs. Unfortunately, you don’t necessarily get what you pay for – no one has ever shown that more expensive funds provide greater returns. Look for funds with reasonable costs. The expense ratio, which expresses annual costs as a percentage amount, is probably the best number to use when comparing mutual fund costs。

Whatever the market does, try to take it in stride. You’re in for the long haul, so don’t worry about the market’s day-to-day gyrations. Relax and resist the temptation to monitor your first investment daily. Check in on your mutual funds once a month, and give your portfolio a thorough exam every 6 to 12 months. And consider adding to your fund each month. An automatic investment plan makes it a relatively painless process。

[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

ranked in order of their support of the thesis.[D] A thesis is stated, three seemingly opposing examples are presented, and their underlying

[B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions。

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument